Sri bhagavan uvaca ( The blessed Lord said ) : Ch.4.1,2,3:

1.Imam vivasvate yogam, proktavan aham avyayam vivasvan manave praha, manur iksvakave’ bravit.

2.evam paramparapraptam rajarsayo viduh sa kalene’ha mahata yogo   nastah paramitapa eva ‘yam maya te ‘dya yogah proktah puratanah bhakto ‘si me  sakha ce ‘ti yahasyam hyetaduttamam

Tr. The blessed Lord sri krsna, said: I instructed this imperishable science of yoga and brahmavidya to the vivasvan the Sun-god and Vivasvan instructed it to Manu, the father of mankind, and Manu in turn  instructed it to Iksvaku ( the king of this earth planet and forefather of Raghu dynasty). This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciples and the saintly kings understood it that way. But in course of time the succession was broken and therefore the science as it appears to be lost. That very ancient science  of the relationship with the supreme is today told by Me to you because you are My devotee as well as my friend (bhaktosi me sakha ceti) krsna chose Arjuna in line with this great tradition and says :

Saeva’yam maya te’dya

Yoga proktah puratanah

Bhakti si me sakha ce’ti

Rahasyam hy etad uttamam    ( Ch.4 ;3)

Tr.This same ancient yoga has been today declared to thee by Me; for thou art my devotee and My friend; and this is the supreme secret. He says that he is not stating any new doctrine, but is only restoring ancient tradition, the eternal verity handed down in succession the universal norm by which all teachings are judged, the eternal source of all religions and philosophies, the “Philosophia perennis” the “Santanadharma” the wisdom that was not made ; but is at this present, as it hath ever been and so shall ever be !

While praising the divine endowments of Arjuna, krsna says

“ daivi sampad vimoksaya

nibandhaya’ suri mata

ma ‘sucah sampadam daivim

abhijato ‘si pandava………..  B.G Ch : 16.5

Tr. The divine endowments are said to make for deliverance and the demoniac for bondage. Grieve not, O pandava (Arjuna), thou art born with the divine endowments.

Here krsna assures Arjuna not to grieve and reminds him of his divine destiny. The relation between Krsna and Arjuna is based on “sakhya rasa” besides Arjuna being the chosen one to be impared of that spiritual knowledge in line with those who have been instructed by Him from time immemorial. Arjuna was a perfect  receiver  of this supreme sciecnce and adopts heuristic method in the upanishadic tradition. The way he questions and obtains clarifications from Krsna were very scholarly and reflect a spiritually advanced and evolved disciple –friend. My attempt in compiling this “Gitarjuniyam” is to present the Gita from              “ Arjuna uvaca” aspect

The despondent mood and the scholarly rationalization and Justification of his refusal to fight was reflected in the first chapter. He was overcome with great compassion (krpaya paraya’ visto C.1.28) and uttered  (drstve’mam svajanam Krsna C.1:28)  how to kill my own people and kinsmen-in sadness (visidan). This state of mind in distress of Arjuna resulted in a purifacatory  experience of catharsis .

Arjuna’s words make us think of the lonliness of man oppressed by doubt, dread of waste waste and emptiness, from whose being the riches of heaven and earth and the comfort of human affection are slipping away. This pathos is portrayed in poignant imagery in the following two verses:

Sidanti mama gatrani

Mukham ca parisusyati

vepathu’s  ca sarire me

romaharsa’s ca jayate              ch.1.29

Tr. My limbs quail, my mouth goes dry, my body shakes and my hair stands on end.

Gandivam sramsate hastat

Tvak cai’va paridahyate

Na ca ‘saknomy avasthatum

Bhramati ‘va ca me manah      ch.1.30.

Tr. The bow (Gandiva) slips from my hand and my skin  too is burning all over. I am not able to stand steady. My mind is reeling.

Arjuna takes up a pacifist attitude and declines to participate in a fight for truth and justice. He takes a human view of the situation and represents the extreme of  non-voilence.

He winds up :

Yadi mam ap retikaram

Asastram ‘sastrapanyah

Dhartarastra ra ne hanyus

Tan me ksemataram bhavet        ch.1.46.

Tr.   Far better would it be for me if the sons of dhartarastra, with weapons inhand, should slay me in the battle, while I remain unresisting and unarmed.

Arjuna does not raise the question of right or wrong of the war. He has faced many fierce battles and fought many enemies valiantly. He declares against war and its horrors because he has to destroy his own friends and relations (svajanam). It is not a question of violence or non-voilence against one’s friends now turned enemies. Arjuna’s words are uttered in agony and love. He has his mind on the frontiers of two worlds. His reluctance to fight is not the outcome of spiritual development or the predominance of sattvaguna but is the product of ignorance and passion*. Arjuna admits that he is overcome by weakness andignorance.* He is struggling to get something done as man has struggled from the beginning , and yet he is incapable of decision because of his inability to understand either himself or his fellows or the real nature of the universe in which he is placed. He is stressing the physical pain and the material discomfort which warfare involves. On the very edge of the battle, Arjuna looses heart and all worldly considerations persuade him to abstain from the battle. Krsna advises Arjuna to fight without passion or ill-will, without anger or attachment. Arjuna has still to listen to the voice of the teacher who declares that he should lead a life in which his acts will not have their root in desire., that there is such a thing as niskama karma – desireless action. We must fight against what is wrong but if we allow ourselves to hate, that ensures our spiritual defeat. It is not possible to kill people in a state of absolute serenity or absorption in God. We may be oblized to do painful work  but it should be done in a way that does not develop the sense of separate ego.*

Krsna tells Arjuna that one can attain perfection even while doing one’s duties. Action done devotedly and whole heartedly , without attachment to the result makes for perfection. Our action must be the result of our nature. Every one must go upward from the point where he stands. The emphasis of the Gita on “Lokasamgraha” , world solidarity, requires us to change the whole pattern of our life.

Arjuna Clarifiies his stand again:

Nihatya dhartarastran nah

Ka pritih syaj janardana

Papam eva’ srayed asman

Hatvai’tan atatayinah                           ch.I.36

Tr.What pleasure can be ours, O krsna, after we have slain the sons of dhrtarastra? Only sin will accrue to us if kill these malignants.

He exclaims: “ How shall we benefit by this bloody sacrifice? What is that goal that we expect to reach over the dead bodies of all that we hold dear?” Arjuna is being guided by social conventions and customary morality and not by his individual perception of truth. He has to slay the symbols of this external morality and develop inward strength. His former teachers who gave him guidance in life have to be slain before he can develop the wisdom of the soul. Arjuna is still talking in terms of enlightened selfishness.

Arjuna’s unresolved doubts continued in the second chapter in verses 4,5,6,7 and 8 :


Arjuna uvaca

Katham bhismam aham samkhye

Dronamca madhusudana

Isu bhih pratiyotnsyami

Pujarhar arisudana

Tr. Arjuna said:  How shall I strike Bhisma and Drona who are worethy of worship, O Madhusudana (krsna)with arrows in battle, O’ slayer of foes (krsna)

In all these five verses Arjuna speaks like a samnyasin, though as a householder (grhasta) he belongs to the warrior caste. Edwin Arnold, in his “song celestial” brings out Arjuna’s feelings in equisite poetry thus:

“Better I deem it, if my kinsmen strike

To face them weaponless, and bear my breast

To shaft and spear, than answer blow with blow”

In the next verse he expresses his pounding feeling in an appealing phrase “bhunjiya bhogam rudhirapradigdhan,” which means “to enjoy in this world delights which are smeared with blood.”

Gurun ahatva hi mahanubhavan

Sreyo bhoktum bhaiksam api ha loke

Hatva ‘rtha kamams tu gurun ihai’va

Bhunjiya bhogan rudhirapradigdhan.       Ch.II;5

Tr. It is better to live in this world even by begging than to slay these honourable teachers. Though they are mindful of their gains, they are my teachers and by slaying them, only, I would enjoy in this world delights which are smeared with blood.


S.R.BG. Allen & Uniwin. London P.94.

  1. B.G.Ch.XVIII,7,8
  2. B.G. Ch.II ,7.
  3. S.R.B.G. Allen & Uniwin , London P.68,69.

Radhakrishnsnan elaborates this point pertinently , “If we make real to ourselves the victims of every blood stained page of history, if we hear the woes of women, the cries of chidren, the tales of calamity, of oppression and of injustices in its myaiad forms , no one with any human feelings would delight in such blood stained conquests.

The next verse also continues in the same vein:

“na cai’tad vidmah kataran no gariyo

yad va jayema yadi va no jayeyuh

yan eva hatva na jijivisa mas

te’vasthitah pramukhe dhartarastrah                ch.II ;6.

Tr. Nor do we know which for us is better, whether we conquer them or they conquer us. The sons of dhrtarastra whom if we slew We should not care to live, are standing before us in battle array. Consider the next verse wherein Arjuna is driven not only by despair, anxiety and doubt but also by an ardent wish for certainty- (niscitam).

Karpanya dosopahatasvabhavah

Prcchami tvam dharmasammudhacetah

yac chreyah syan niscitam bruhi tan me

sisyas te’ham sadhi mam tvam  praspannam               ch II;7.

Tr. My very being is stricken with the weakness of (sentimental ) pity. With my mind bewildered about my duty, I ask Thee. Tell me, for certain , which is better. I am Thy pupil; teach me, who am seeking refuge in Thee.

Arjuna faces difficulties outward and inward, such as the resistance of relations and friends, doubts and fears, passions and desires. Weighed down by wretchedness, cofused about what is right and wrong, Arjuna seeks light and guidance from his teacher, the Divine with him, within his self. When one’s world is in ruins, one can only  turn within and seek illumination as the gift of god’s infinite compassion. Arjuna does not ask for a metaphisic as he is not a seeker of knowledge;nas a man of action, for his dharma, for what he has to do in this difficulty, “Master, what wouldst thou have me to do?”

Arjuna is subconsciously aware that to analyze his unreason is to step towards development of reason. The consciousness of imperfection in him indicates his spiritual aspiration. He is being led to a higher condition through a crisis of contrition. It is a common experience for seekers being assailed by doubts and difficulties when they are on the threshold of light. Like Arjuna, the aspirant must realize his weakness and ignorance and yet be anxious to do God’s will and discover what it is.

Arjuna’s conflict within himself continues in verse 8.

“ na hi prapasyami mama panudyad

yac chokam ucchosanam indriyanam

avapya bhumav asapatnam rddham

rajyam suranam api ca’dhipatyam

Tr. I do not see what will drive away this sorrow which dries up my senses even if I should attain rich and unrivalled kingdom on earth or even the sovereignity of the gods.

Arjuna bemoanes that the conflicrt in him must be healed. He must attain to a new, integral, comprehensive consciousness.


Krsna explains to Arjuna from 11th verse to 25th about the distinction between self and body and that we should not grieve for what is imperishable. Actually in the verses 1 to 38 Krsna explains to Arjuna the wisdom of the samkhya philosophy. The samkhya here does not refer to kapila’s system but to the teachings of the Upanishads. While the samkhya system postulates a plurality of souls, the Gita reconciles this with the unity, the one ksetrajna in whom we live, move and have our being. Krsna explains to Arjuna that Brahman is the basis of all things and is not itself a thing. Brahman does not exist in time but time is in it. In this sense also, the ego’s have neither beginning nor end.(ch.II;12). Souls are like Brahman, for the cause and effect are essentially one as the sayings, “aham brahmasmi” (Iam Brahman), “tat tvam asi” (That art Thou) indicate. The plurality is used here with reference to the bodies that are different and not with regard to the universal self (dehabhedanuvrttya bahuvacanam na’tmabhedabhi-prayena – ‘sankara). To put it plainlyit means that all creatures have existed eternally in the Divine essence as in their exemplar. So far as they confirm to the divine idea , all beings were before their creation, one with the essence of God.. The personal Lord, the divine creator, is coeval with the empirical universe. In a sense, He is the totality of empirical existences. Vajasaneyi-samhita describes this primordial state as : “ prajapati carati garbhe antar ajayamano bahudha vijayate”  (The Lord of the beings travels in the wombs. Though unborn he is born in many ways). “ Till the cosmic process ends, the multiplicity of individuals with their distinctive qualitative contents persists. The multiplicity is not separable from the cosmos!”

From 26th verse to 30th verse krsna admonishes Arjuna that we should not grieve for what is perishable. “apariharye’rthe na tvam  ‘socitum arhasi” (for what is unavoidable, thou shoudst not grieve) says krsna in verse No.27in the second chapter. It is so (aparihar) that all life ends in death, that all progress is perishable, that nothing is permanent in the temporal sense of the term. But in every perfect realizartion, the eternal becomes actualized and the development in time is only the means to this essential aim. What is subject unavoidably and entirely to the rule of change or time is not of intrinsic importance;  the eternal plaqn is the central truth whether cosmic accidents permit its full realization on earth or not.

In verse number 29 krsna explains about the Atman as ascaryavat pasyati ascaryavat vadati….ascaryat srnoti (one looks upon Him as a marvel… and another hears Him as a marvel. He concludes that even when one has beheld, heard and proclaimed it no one has understood it and that only a fgew rare souls succeed in braving the perils and reaching the goal.

In verses 31 to 38 krsna appeals to the sense of duty of Arjuna  “dharmyad dhi yuddhac chreyo ‘nyat.” His ‘svadharma’ or law of action, requires him to engage in war. His duty is to maintain order by force , protection of right by the acceptance of battle as the social duty of the ksatriya and not to become an ascetic by “shaving off the hair” (danda eva hi rajendra ksatradharmo  na mundanam – santiparva-23,46). Etimologically a ksatriya is he who saves from destruction “ksatad yo  vai trayati’ti sa tasmat ksattriyah smrtah “ (Mahabharat XII,9, 138). Krsna tells Arjuna that for great warriors like him  there is no more ennobling duty than a fair fight.


1.S.R.B.G. George allen & unwin   P.104.

The insight of yoga is explained from verses 39 to 41 and verses 42 to 46 say that there is no wisdom for the worldly minded samkhya in the Gita does not mean the system of philosophy known by that name; nor does yoga mean patanjalayoga. The scholastic version  of the samkhya is a frank dualism of purusa and prakrti (self and not self) which is transcended in the Gita which affirms the reality of a supreme self who is the lord of all. Samkhya gives an intellectual account of the intuition of the unchanging one – “ suddhatmattvavijnanam samkhyam ity abhidhiyate.”  It is the yoga of knowledge. The yoga of action is karmayoga. In the Gita, samkhya lays stress on knowledge and renunciation of desire and yoga in action.

From verses 47 to 53 krsna teaches to Arjuna the essential principle of disinterestedness and how to work without concern for results in a spirit of willing fulfillment of the purpose of God, that success or failure does not depend on the individual but on other factors as well . He emphasizes non “samatvam” – the inner poise  in 48th verse: It is self mastery. It. Is conquest of anger, sensitiveness, pride and ambition. He proclaims that we work with a perfect serenity indifferent to the results and that he who acts by virtue of an inner law is on a higher level than on whose action  is dictated by his whims.


Arjuna uvaca

“sthita prajnasya ka bhasa

samadhisthasya kesava

sthitadhih ki prabhaseta kim asita vrajeta kim”          ch:11.54.

Tr. What is the description of the man who has this firmly founded wisdom, whose being is steadfast in spirit, O kesava (krsna)? How should the man of settled intelligence speak, how should he sit, how should he walk?

Arjuna uses three words “ sthitaprajnasya” – a person firmly founded in wisdom,  “samadhisthasya” whose being is steadfast in spirit, “sthitadhih” – man of settled intelligence, which reveal how accomplished he is spiritually. The desire to know how such a person “sthithaprajna” will speak,sit and walk show that he wants to hear directly more from krsna (yogeswar) himself to his spiritual delight. Such sthitaprajnas are sages and Arjuna asks for some discernible signs, some dinguishing marks of such developed souls. These developed souls, S.R. observes,  “by their very example, affect the society to which they nolonger belong. They form the conscience society. Their utterance is free and their vision untrammeled… Their supersocial life is a witness to the validity of ultimate values from which other social values derive.”


The III chapter on karma-yoga begins with Arjuna’s raising a pertinent question.

Arjuna uvaca :

Jyayasi cet karmanas te

Mata buddhir janardana

tat kim karmani ghore mam

niyojayasi kesava                   ch.III ; 1.

Tr. If thou deemest that (the path of) understanding is more excellent than (the path of) action, O Janardana (krsna) why then dost thou urge me do this savage deed, O kesava (krsna)?

1.S.Radhakrishnan “Bhagavad Gita”  George Allen and Unwin ltd. P.123.

Arjuna thinks that if the samkhya method of obtaining wisdom is superior, then action is irrelevant. Arjuna misunderstands the teaching that work for reward is less excellent than work without attachment and desire and believes that krsna is  of the view that knowledge without action is better than work and asks, if you think that knowledge is superior to action, why do you ask me to engage in this frightful work?

A bewildered Arjuna persuades :

Vyamisne ‘va vakyena

Uddhim mohaya si ’va me

Tad ekam vada niscitya

Yena  ‘sreyo ‘ham apnuyam    Ch.III ; 2.

Tr. With an apparently confused utterance thou seemest to bewilder my intelligence. Tell (me) then decisively the one thing by which I can attain to the highest good.

Herethe confusion of Arjuna is only seeming. As Sridhara points out ‘paramakaruni kasya tava mohakatvam nasti eva, tathapi bhrantya mamaivam bhatiti ‘vasabdenoktam’. The purport of this is that it is not the intention of krsna to confuse to Arjuna , but Arjuna is confused..


Krsna explains the karmayoga or the method of work in terms of the following statements.

1.that life is work and unconcern  {}Te path of work is a means of liberaration as

for work is needful                     {}efficient as that of knowledge : work is

compatible with enlightenment – the

enlightened work without self sense and

expectation of reward.

2.The importance of sacrifice –     {}do thy work as a sacrifice (yajnartat karma) –

{}as service of creation in the name of supreme.

3.Be satisfied in the self                    {} atmaratir eva syas the man whose delight is in the

{} self alone, who is cintent with the self, for him

{} there exists no work that needs to be done – his

{} perfected nature issues spontaneously in action,

{} freed from a sense of duty. Perform work without

{} attachment (asaktohi acaran karma)

4.set an example for others.                       {} yat paramanam kurute (srestah) lokas tad

{} anuvartate.great men are the path makers who

{} blaze the trail  that other men follow They see the

{} light shining on the mountain heights while their

{} fellows sleep in the valley  below. They are the

{} “leaven”, “light” of human communities. They

proclaim the splendour of that light  and

persuade us to follow them.

“ Thou shouldst do works with a view to the

maintenance of the world (Lokasamgrahartham)

Lokasamgraha – world – maintenance,

Lokasamgraham stands for the unity of the world, the interconnectedness os society – to establish a brotherhood on earth – to embody ideals in earthly institutions. It emphasizes active service in the world and the saving of civilization

The Dialogue

Arjuna Uvaca

Aparam bhavato janma

Param janma vivasvatah

Katham etad vijaniyam

Tvam adau proktavan iti                      Ch.IV_ 4

Tr. Arjuna said:

Later was thy birth and earlier was the birth of vivasvat. How then am I to understand that thou didst declare it to him in the beginning?

The discourse.

Sri bhagavan uvaca

To this question  ‘ The blessed Lord said : “Many are My lives that are past,and thine also; all of them I know but thou knowest not. Yhough (Iam)unborn(ajah) and Myself (is) imperishable (avyayatma) though  (I am) the lord of all creatures (bhtanam isvarah) yet establishing Myself in My own nature ((prakrtim svam adhisthaya), I come into (empiric) being through My power (sambhavami atmamayaya). The lord controls prakrti and assumes embodiment through his own free will. The ordinary birth of creatures is determined by the force of pravasam prakrter vasat (ch.IX-8), while the lord takes birth through his own power, atmamayaya.

While explaining the theory of avatars the Lord pronounces the divine proclamation.:

yada-yada hi dharmasya

glanirbhavati bhavati barata

abhyutthanam adharmasya

tada t-manam srjamy aham (ch.IV:7)

(7..(Tr.) Whenever there is a decline of righteousness and rise of unrighteousness, O bharata (Arjuna), then I send forth (create incarnate) myself

The theory of “Avatara” ,means descent one who has descended.  The Divine comes down to the earthly plane to raise it to a higher status.  God descends when man ascends.  The purpose of the avatar is to inaugurate a new world, a new dharma.  By his teaching and example, he shows how a human being can raise himself to a higher grade of life.  The issue between right and wrong is decisive one.  God works on the side of the right.  Love and mercy are ultimately more powerful than hatred and cruelty.  Dharma will conquer adharma, truth will conquer falsehood; the power behind death, disease and sin will be overthrown by the reality which is being, intelligence and bliss.

According to Bhagavad-Gita dharma ontologically means mode of being.  It is the essential nature of a being that determines its mode of behavior.  So long as our conduct is in conformity with our essential nature, we are acting in the right way.  Adharma is no-conformity to our nature.  If the harmony of the world is derived from the conformity of all beings to their respective natures, the disharmony of the world issue to their non-conformity.  God does not stand aside, when we abuse our freedom and cause disequilibrium.  He does not simply wind up the world, set it on the right track and then let it jog along by itself.  His loving hand is steering it all the time.

The conception of dharma is a development of the idea of rta which connotes cosmic as well as moral order in the Rg.veda.  Te rta which gives logical significance and ethical elevation to the world is  the upholder of righteousness “sasvatadhrmagopta” (ch.XI.19) not a god beyond good and evil, remote and uncerned with man’s struggle with unrighteousness.

The lord reiterates in the same vein.:

Paritrnaya sadhunam

Vinasaya ca duskrtam


Sambhavami Yuge-Yuge (ch.IV;8)

Tr. For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked and for establishment of righteousness, I come into being from age to age.

It is the function of god as Vishnu, the protector of world, to keep the world going on lines of righteousness.  He assumes birth to re-establish right when wrong prevails.  Krishna as an avatar or descent of the Divine into the human world discloses the condition of being to which the human souls should rise.  The birth of the birth less means the revelation of the mystery in the soul of man.

The avatar fulfils a number of functions in the cosmic process.  The conception makes out that there is no opposition between spiritual life and life in the world.  If the world is impart and ruled by the flesh and the devil, it is our duty to redeem it for the spirit.  The avatara points out the way by which men can rise from their animal to a spiritual mode of existence by providing us with an example of spiritual life.  The divine nature is not seen in the incarnation in its naked splendour but is mediated by the instrumentality of manhood.  The divine greatness is conveyed to us in and through these great individuals.  Their lives dramatize for us the essential constituents of human life ascending to the fulfillment of its destiny.

The Bhagvata says

“martyavatarastv iha martyasiksnaam

raksovadhayaiva na kevalam vibhaoh

kuto’nyaatha syad ramatah sva atmanah

sitakrtani vyasanane ‘svarasya.

Bhagavatam V, 19.5

Tr. The omnipresent Lord appears in the world not only for destroying the demoniac forces but also for teaching mortals.  How else could the lord who is blissful in Himself experience anxieties about Sita etc..

He knows the hunger and thirst, sorrow and suffering, solitude and forsakenness.  He overcomes them all and asks us to take courage from his example.  He not only teaches the true doctrine by which we can die to our separate temporal selfness & come to union with Timeless spirit but he offers himself to be channel of grace.  By inviting souls to trust and love him, he promises to lead them to the knowledge of the absolute.  The historical fact is the illustration of a process ever unfolding in the heart of man.  The avatar helps us to become what we potentially are.  We can all rise to the divine status and the avataras help us to achieve this inner realization.

The Discourse

During the course of his discourse the lord explains:

The Desire less nature of God’s work   (IV; 13)

  • Action without attachment does not lead to Bondage  (IV; 14&15)
  • Action and Inaction (IV; 16 – 22)
  • Sacrifice and its symbolic value (IV; 23-32)
  • Wisdom and work (IV 33&34)
  • In praise of Wisdom (IV 35-38)
  • Faith is necessary for wisdom (IV 39-42)

The lord concludes the discourse with the statement “yogasamnyastakarmanam” which

means a person who has renounced all works by yoga and bring out the mutual relationship of true work, wisdom and self-discipline.  He also attributes an important characteristic “atmavantam” to such a person who possesses his self.  While he does work for others, e remains himself.  In the eager pursuit of the good of others, he does not loses his hold on the self.



  1. Dear Dr. Rao garu,


    Today after returning to Hyderabad, I’ve seen in internet the published articles by you. But Telugu articles and some more in English like Venkata Chalam’s Speeches etc are not there. Hope they are also being updated.

    Thanks for the efforts.

    R Poornchandra Rao, Hyderabad

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